This section features key phrases and terms that will give the readER insight into marketing and advertising terms.
Back to Back – Running more than one commercial, with one following immediately after another.
Bait Advertising – Advertising a product at a very low price, when it is difficult or even impossible to obtain the product for the price advertised.
Barter – Exchanging merchandise, or something other than money, for advertising time or space.
Ben Day process – A shading or dot pattern on a drawing.
Billboard – (1) An outdoor sign or poster; (2) Sponsor identification at the beginning or end of a television show.
Billings – Total amount charged to clients, including the agency commission, media costs, production costs, etc.
Bleed – Allowing a picture or ad to extend beyond the normal margin of a printed page, to the edge of the page.
Blow-in-card – An advertisement, subscription request, or other printed card “blown” into a print publication rather than bound into it.
Blueline – A blue line drawn on a mechanical to indicate where a page will be cut.
Body Copy – The text of a print ad, not including the headline, logo, or subscript material.
Boutique – An agency that provides a limited service, such as one that does creative work but does not provide
media planning, research, etc. Usually, this refers to a relatively small company.
Brand Development Index (BDI) – A comparison of the percent of a brand’s sales in a market to the percent of the national population in that same market.
Brand Manager – Person who has marketing responsibilities for a specific brand.
Brand Name – Name used to distinguish one product from it’s competitors. It can apply to a single product, an entire product line, or even a company.
Bridge – Transition from one scene to another, in a commercial or program.
Broadsheet – Standard size newspaper.
Broadside – A promotion that is printed on a single large sheet of paper, usually on only one side of the paper, as
opposed to a tabloid or other off – size newspaper.
Bulldog Edition – An edition of a print publication that is available earlier than other editions. Usually, this is the early edition of a large circulation newspaper.
Buried Position – Placing an ad between other ads in a print publication, so that readers are less likely to see it.
Business-to-Business Advertising – Advertising directed to other businesses, rather than to consumers.
CBBB: Council of Better Business Bureaus. A national organization of local business bureaus.
Camera-Ready Art: Artwork that is in sufficiently finished form to be photographed for printing.
Caption: (1) An advertisement’s headline; (2) The text accompanying an illustration or photograph.
Car Card – A poster placed in buses, subways, etc. Also called a Bus card.
Card–Rate: Media rates published by a broadcast station or print publication on a “rate card.” This is typically the
highest rate charged by a vehicle.
Category Development Index (CDI): A comparison of the percent of sales of a product category in a market,
to the percent of population in that market.
Cease–and-Desist Order: An order by the Federal Trade Commission requiring an advertiser to stop running a deceptive or unfair advertisement, campaign, or claim.
Chain Break: A pause for station identification, and commercials, during a network telecast.
Channels of Distribution: The routes used by a company to distribute its products, e.g., through wholesalers, retailers, mail order, etc.
Chrome: A color photographic transparency.
Circulation of a Print Publication: The average number of copies distributed. For outdoor advertising this refers to the total number of people who have an opportunity to observe a billboard or poster. This term sometimes is used for broadcast, as well, but the term “audience” is used more frequently.
Classified Advertising: Print advertising that is limited to certain classes of goods and services, and usually limited in size and content.
Claymation: An animation method that uses clay figurines.
Clearance: The process by which a vehicle reviews an advertisement for legal, ethical, and taste standards, before accepting the ad for publication.
Client: The ad agency’s term for the advertisers it represents.
Closing Date: The day final copy and other materials must be at the vehicle in order to appear in a specific issue or time slot.
Clutter: When an advertisement is surrounded by other ads, thereby forcing it to compete for the viewer’s or
Coated Stock: Paper with a slick and smooth finish.
Coincidental Survey: A survey of viewers or listeners of broadcast programming, conducted during the program.
Cold Type: Refers to most modern typesetting methods, such as phototypesetting, because they do not involve
pouring hot molten metal into molds for different type fonts.
Collateral Materials: Sales brochures, catalogs, spec sheets, etc., generally delivered to consumers (or dealers) by a sales person rather than by mass media. These materials are considered “collateral” to the sales message
delivered by the sales person.
Collectibles: A type of premium that consumers may desire to have as a part of a greater collection of similar goods.
Color Proof: An early full–color print of a finished advertisement, used to evaluate the ad’s final appearance.
Color Separation: A full–color ad normally is generated through printing of four separate colors: yellow, cyan, magenta, and black. The color separation consists of four separate screens; one for each of those four colors.
Column Inch: A common unit of measure by newspapers, whereby ad space is purchased by the width, in columns, and the depth, in inches. For example, an ad that is three standard columns wide and 5 inches tall (or
deep) would be 15 column inches.
Combination Rate: A special media pricing arrangement that involves purchasing space or time on more than one vehicle, in a package deal. This is frequently offered where different vehicles share a common owner.
Commercial Advertising: Advertising that involves commercial interests rather than advocating a social or political cause.
Communication process: A description or explanation of the chain–of–events involved in communicating information from one party to another.
Comparative Advertising: An advertising appeal that consists of explicitly comparing one product brand to a competitive brand.
Competition–Oriented Pricing: A pricing strategy that is based upon what the competition does.
Competitive Parity: A method of determining an advertising budget, designed to maintain the current “share of voice.”
Comprehensive Layout: A rough layout of an ad designed for presentation only, but so detailed as to appear very much like the finished ad will look.
Consent Order: Also called a consent decree, this is a Federal Trade Commission order, by which an advertiser agrees to make changes in an advertisement or campaign, without the need for a legal hearing.
Consumer Advertising: Advertising directed at a person who will actually use the product for their own benefit, rather than to a business or dealer.
Consumer Behavior: Study of how people behave when obtaining, using, and disposing of products (and services).
Consumer Jury Test: A method of testing advertisements that involves asking consumers to compare, rank, and otherwise evaluate the ads.
Consumer Stimulants: Promotional efforts designed to stimulate short–term purchasing behavior. Coupons, premiums, and samples are examples of consumer stimulants.
Consumerism: (1) Advocating the rights of consumers, as against the efforts of advertisers, (2) The emphasis of advertising and marketing efforts toward creating consumers. These two definitions are almost opposite in meaning, but the former is commonly used today, while the latter was common prior to the 1970s.
Container Premium: Special product packaging, where the package itself acts as a premium of value to the consumer.
Content Marketing: Content marketing means creating and sharing valuable content to attract and convert prospects into customers, and customers into repeat buyers. The type of content you share is closely related to what you sell; in other words, you’re educating people so that they know, like, and trust you enough to do business with you.
Continuity: Scheduling advertisements to appear at regular intervals over a period of time.
Continuous Advertising: Scheduling advertisements to appear regularly, even during times when consumers are not likely to purchase the product or service, so that consumers are constantly reminded of the brand.
Continuous Tone Art: Where a photograph or other art depicts smooth gradations from one level of gray to
Controlled (Qualified) Circulation: Publications, generally business–oriented, that are delivered only to readers who have some special qualifications. Generally, publications are free to the qualified recipients.
Cooperative (Co–op) Program: A system by which ad costs are divided between two or more parties. Usually, such programs are offered by manufacturers to their wholesalers or retailers, as a means of encouraging those parties to advertise the product.
Cooperative Advertising: Same as Cooperative program, above.
Copy: All spoken words or written text in an advertisement.
Copy Platform: See Creative Strategy, below.
Copy Testing: Research to determine an ad’s effectiveness, based on consumer responses to the ad.
Corporate Advertising Campaign: A campaign that promotes a corporation, rather than a product or service sold by that corporation.
Corrective Advertising: Advertisements or messages within advertisements, that the Federal Trade Commission orders a company to run, for the purpose of correcting consumers’ mistaken impressions created by prior
Cost Efficiency: For a media schedule, refers to the relative balance of effectively meeting reach and frequency goals at the lowest price.
Cost per Inquiry: The cost of getting one person to inquire about your product or service. This is a standard used in direct response advertising.
Cost per Rating Point (CPP): The cost, per 1 percent of a specified audience, of buying advertising space in a given media vehicle.
Cost per Thousand (CPM): The cost, per 1000 people reached, of buying advertising space in a given media vehicle.
Counter Advertising: Advertising that takes a position contrary to an advertising message that preceded it. Such advertising may be used to take an opposing position on a controversial topic, or to counter an impression that
might be made by another party’s advertising.
Coverage: A measure of a media vehicle’s reach, within a specific geographic area.
Creative Strategy: An outline of what message should be conveyed, to whom, and with what tone. This provides the guiding principles for copywriters and art directors who are assigned to develop the advertisement. Within the context of that assignment, any ad that is then created should conform to that strategy. The written statement of creative strategy is sometimes called a “copy platform.”
Creatives: The art directors and copywriters in an ad agency.
Crop: To eliminate or cut off specific portions of a photograph or illustration.
Crop marks: Marks to indicate which portions a photograph or illustration are to be used, and which are to be
Cumes: An abbreviation for net cumulative audience. Refers to the number of unduplicated people or homes in
a broadcast program’s audience within a specified time period. This term is used by A.C. Nielsen. It also is used by many advertising practitioners to refer to the unduplicated audience of a print vehicle, or an entire media schedule.
Cumulative Audience: See Cumes, above.
Customer relationship management (CRM): is a term that refers to practices, strategies and technologies that companies use to manage and analyze customer interactions and data throughout the customer life-cycle, with the goal of improving business relationships with customers, assisting in customer retention and driving sales growth. CRM systems are designed to compile information on customers across different channels — or points of contact between the customer and the company — which could include the company’s website, telephone, live chat, direct mail, marketing materials and social media. CRM systems can also give customer-facing staff detailed information on customers’ personal information, purchase history, buying preferences and concerns.
Cut: An antiquated term that refers to a photograph or illustration.
Cutting: A film editing technique that creates a quick transition from one scene to another.