This section features key phrases and terms that will give the readER insight into marketing and advertising terms.
Dailies: Also called rushes, this refers to unedited film. These are called Dailies because the film typically is
viewed from a single day’s shooting, even if the final commercial or program will take many days or weeks of shooting.
DAGMAR: This refers to a process of establishing goals for an ad campaign such that it is possible to determine
whether or not the goals have been met. It stands for Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results.
Day–After Recall Test: A research method that tests consumers’ memories the day after they have seen an ad, to assess the ad’s effectiveness.
Daypart: Broadcast media divide the day into several standard time periods, each of which is called a “daypart.”
Cost of purchasing advertising time on a vehicle varies by the daypart selected.
Decay Constant: An estimate of the decline in product sales if advertising were discontinued.
Deceptive Advertising, FTC Definition: A representation, omission, act or practice that is likely to mislead consumers acting reasonably under the circumstances. To be regulated, however, a deceptive claim must also be
material. See Materiality, below.
Demographic Segmentation: Dividing consumers into groups based on selected demographics, so that different groups can be treated differently. For example, two advertisements might be developed, one for adults and one for
teenagers, because the two groups are expected to be attracted to different types of advertising appeal. See
Demographics: Basic objective descriptive classifications of consumers, such as their age, sex, income, education, size of household, ownership of home, etc. This does not include classification by subjective attitudes
or opinions of consumers. See Psychographics, below.
Depth Interview: A method of research, whereby a trained interviewer meets with consumers individually an
d asks a series of questions designed to detect attitudes and thoughts that might be missed when using other
Designated Market Area (DMA): A geographic designation, used by A.C. Nielsen, that specifies which counties fall into a specific television market. See also, Area of dominant influence..
Direct House: An advertising specialties company that manufactures and then sells its goods directly with its own
sales force, rather than through retailers.
Direct Mail: Marketing communications delivered directly to a prospective purchaser via the U.S. Postal Service or a private delivery company.
Direct Marketing: Sending a promotional message directly to consumers, rather than via a mass medium. Includes methods such as Direct Mail and Telemarketing.
Direct Premium: A premium provided to the consumer at the same time as the purchase.
Direct Response: Promotions that permit or request consumers to directly respond to the advertiser, by mail, telephone, e–mail, or some other means of communication. Some practitioners use this as a synonym for Direct
Directory Advertising: Advertising that appears in a directory (telephone directory, tourism brochure, etc.). This frequently connotes advertising that consumers intentionally seek.
Display Advertisement: (1) In print media, any advertisement other than a classified ad. (2) An ad that stands alone, such as window sign.
Dissolve: Fading from one scene to another in a film or television production.
Distributor: A company or person that distributes a manufacturer’s goods to retailers. The terms “wholesaler” and
“jobber” are sometimes used to describe distributors.
Door-Opener: A product or advertising specialty given by a sales person to consumers to induce them to listen to a sales pitch.
Double Truck: A two–page spread in a print publication, where the ad runs across the middle gutter.
Drive time: Used in radio, this refers to morning and afternoon times when consumers are driving to and from
work. See Daypart, above.
Dummy: A copy (e.g., xerographic duplicate) of an ad, or even blank sheets of paper, provided to a printer or
artist as an example of the size, color, or other aspect of the ad to be produced.
Duplicated Audience: That portion of an audience that is reached by more than one media vehicle.
Earned Rate: A discounted media rate, based on volume or frequency of media placement.
Electric Spectacular: Outdoor signs or billboards composed largely of lighting or other electrical components.
Em: Unit of type measurement, based on the “M” character.
End-User: The person who actually uses a product, whether or not they are the one who purchased the product.
Envelope Stuffer: A direct mail advertisement included with another mailed message (such as a bill).
Equal Time: A Federal Communications Commission requirement that when a broadcaster allows a political
candidate broadcast a message, opposing candidates must be offered equal broadcast time.
Eighty-Twenty Rule (aka The Pareto Principle): A rule–of–thumb that, for the typical product category, eighty percent of the products sold will be consumed by twenty percent of the customers; or, twenty percent of the available audience makes up eighty percent of your available market share.
Exposure: Consumers who have seen (or heard) a media vehicle, whether or not they paid attention to it.
Eye Tracking: A research method that determines what part of an advertisement consumers look at, by tracking the pattern of their eye movements.
FCC: Federal Communications Commission. The federal agency responsible for regulating broadcast and
FTC: Federal Trade Commission. The federal agency primarily responsible for regulating national advertising.
Facings: Refers to the number of billboards used for an advertisement.
Factory Pack: A premium attached to a product, in or on the packaging.
Fairness Doctrine: Until the mid–1980s, a Federal Communications Commission policy that required broadcasters to provide time for opposing viewpoints any time they broadcast an opinion supporting one side of a
Family Brand: A brand name that is used for more than one product, i.e., a family of products.
Fixed–Sum–per–Unit Method: A method of determining an advertising budget, which is based directly on the number of units sold.
Flat Rate: A media rate that allows for no discounts.
Flighting: A media schedule that involves more advertising at certain times and less advertising during other time
Focus Group Interview: A research method that brings together a small group of consumers to discuss the product or advertising, under the guidance of a trained interviewer.
Font: A typeface style, such as Helvetica, Times Roman, etc., in a single size. A single font includes all 26
letters, along with punctuation, numbers, and other characters.
Four As: See AAAA, above.
Four Ps: Stands for Product, Price, Place (i.e., distribution), and Promotion. This is also known as the Marketing
Mix, see below.
Four–Color Process: A printing process that combines differing amounts of each of four colors (red, yellow, blue & black) to provide a full–color print.
Franchised Position: An ad position in a periodic publication (e.g., back cover) to which an advertiser is given a permanent or long–term right of use.
Free–Standing Insert (FSI): An advertisement or group of ads inserted–but not bound–in a print publication, on pages that contain only the ads and are separate from any editorial or entertainment matter.
Frequency: (1) Number of times an average person or home is exposed to a media vehicle (or group of vehicles),
within a given time period. (2) The position of a television or radio station’s broadcast signal within the electromagnetic spectrum.
Fringe Time: A time period directly preceding and directly following prime time, on television.
Fulfillment House: A coupon clearing house. A company that receives coupons and manages their accounting, verification and redemption.
Full Position: An ad that is surrounded by reading matter in a newspaper, making it more likely consumers will read the ad. This is a highly desirable location for an ad.
Full-Service Agency: An agency that handles all aspects of the advertising process, including planning, design, production, and placement. Today, full–service generally suggests that the agency also handles other aspects of
marketing communication, such as public relations, sales promotion, and direct marketing.