This section features key phrases and terms that will give the readER insight into marketing and advertising terms.
Galley proof:A typeset copy of an ad or editorial material, before it is made into pages for final production.
Galvanometer Test:A research method that measures physiological changes in consumers when asked a question or shown some stimulus material(such as an ad).
Gatefold: Double or triple-size pages, generally in magazines, that fold out into a large advertisement.
Guaranteed Circulation:A media rate that comes with a guarantee that the publication will achieve a certain circulation.
Generic Brand:Product that is not associated with a private or national brand name.
Gravure:A printing process that uses an etched printing cylinder.
Green Advertising: Advertising that promotes a product or service’s ability to help or, more likely, not hurt the environment.
Grid card:A broadcast media rate card that lists rates on a grid, according to the time periods that might be
selected for the ad.
Gross Audience:The audiences of all vehicles or media in a campaign, combined. Some or much of the gross audience may actually represent duplicated audience.
Gross Impressions:Total number of unduplicated people or households represented by a given media schedule.
Gross Rating Points (GRPs):Reach times average frequency. This is a measure of the advertising weight delivered by a vehicle orvehicles within a given time period.
Gutter:The inside margins of two pages that face each other in a print publication.
Halftone:A method of reproducing a black and white photograph or illustration, by representing various shades
of gray as a series of black and white dots.
Hashtags: A hashtag is simply a means to organize and advertise an idea on social media (Instagram, Twitter, Google+, etc. Hashtags are shared with appealing ideas, the more likely the hashtag is to be shared. .
Hierarchy-of-Effects Theory:A series of steps by which consumers receive and use information in reaching decisions about what actions they will take (e.g., whether or not to buy a product).
Holding Power:The ability to keep an audience throughout a broadcast, rather than having them change channels. It is represented as a percent of the total audience.
Holdover Audience:The percent of a program’s audience that watched or listened to the immediately preceding program on the same station. Also called Inherited audience (see below).
Hologram: A three-dimensional photograph or illustration, created with an optical process that uses lasers.
Horizontal Discount: A discount on a media purchase resulting from a promise to advertise over an extended period of time.
Horizontal Publications: Business publications designed to appeal to people of similar interests or responsibilities in a variety of companies or industries.
Host/Hostess Gift:A gift to a consumer who sponsors a sales demonstration party or meeting.
Hot Composition:A method of typesetting that uses molten metal to form the letters for a typeface. See Cold type,
House Agency: An advertising agency owned and operated by an advertiser, which handles the advertiser’s account.
House Organ: A publication owned and operated by an advertiser, and used to promote the advertiser’s products or services.
Households Using Television (HUT): The number of households in a given market watching television at a certain time. This term is used by A.C. Nielsen.
ID:Station identification during a commercial break in a television or radio program.
Image Advertising: Promoting the image, or general perception, of a product or service, rather than promoting its functional attributes. Commonly used for differentiating brands of parity products (e.g., “This is a woman’s
Imprinted Product: A promotional product, this is a product with a company logo or advertising message printed on it.
In-Pack Premium:A premium included in the packaging of another product (e.g., buy a can of shaving cream and get a free razor in the same package). The term Package enclosure is also used.
Incentive Catalog Company:A company that creates an incentive program for sales people, and provides them with a catalog from which they can select their prize or premium.
Independent Contractor:A person who is hired by a company, but works for himself/herself. The company is a client,rather than an employer.
Independent Station:A broadcast station that is not affiliated with a national network of stations.
Industrial Advertising: A form of business-to-business advertising, this is advertising aimed at manufacturers.
This advertising typically promotes parts, equipment, and raw materials used in the manufacturing process.
Infomercial:A commercial that is very similar in appearance to a news program, talk show, or other non-advertising program content. The broadcast equivalent of an Advertorial.
Inherited Audience:Same as Holdover audience, above.
Inquiries:Consumer response to a company’s advertising or other promotional activities, such as coupons. Used
for measuring the effectiveness of some promotions.
Insert:An advertisement, collection of advertisements, or other promotional matter published by an advertiser
or group of advertisers, to be inserted in a magazine or newspaper. It may be bound into the publication, or be inserted without binding. See Free-standing insert.
Insertion:Refers to an ad in a print publication.
Insertion order:An agency or advertiser’s authorization for a publisher to run a specific ad in a specific print publication on a certain date at a specified price.
Institutional Advertising:Advertising to promote an institution or organization, rather than a product or service, in order to create public support and goodwill.
Intaglio: A form of printing that results in a raised or engraved print surface.
Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC): A management concept that is designed to make all aspects of marketing communication (e.g.,advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing) work together as a unified force,rather than permitting each to work in isolation.
Intensive Distribution:Distributing a product through a wide variety of outlets.
International Advertising:Advertising a product or service in a country other than where it originates.
Island display: An in-store product display situated away from competing products, typically in the middle or at the end of an aisle.
Island Position:A print ad that is completely surrounded by editorial material, or a broadcast ad surrounded by program content, with no adjoining advertisements to compete for audience attention.
Jingle:A short song, usually mentioning a brand or product benefit, used in a commercial.
Jumble Display:A mixture of products or brands on a single display, such as a clearance table.
Joint Venture: A joint venture (JV) is a business arrangement in which two or more parties agree to pool their resources for the purpose of accomplishing a specific task. This task can be a new project or any other business activity.
In a joint venture (JV), each of the participants is responsible for profits, losses and costs associated with it. However, the venture is its own entity, separate and apart from the participants’ other business interests.
Although they are a partnership in the colloquial sense of the word, JVs can take on any legal structure. Corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies and other business entities can all be used to form a JV.