This section features key phrases and terms that will give the readER insight into marketing and advertising terms.
Quantitative Research: A method of advertising research that emphasizes measurement of incidence of consumer trends within a population.
by AFTRA (American Federation of Television and Radio Artists) or SAG (Screen Actors Guild) contract.
Resolution: Refers to the clarity of a television image as received by a set.
Restricted Line: Sales items that are not legally sold in certain geographic areas, or only under special legal restrictions.
Retail Advertising: Advertising which promotes local merchandisers’ goods and services. Also referred to as Local Advertising.
Retail Trading Zone: Defined by the Audit Bureau of Circulation as the area beyond an urban area whos
e residents regularly trade with retail merchants within the urban area.
Retouching: To alter photographs, artwork, or film to emphasize or introduce desired features and also to eliminate unwanted ones.
Rip–o–matic: A very rough rendition of a proposed commercial, composed of images and sounds borrowed (ripped–
off) from other commercials or broadcast materials.
Road Block: A method of scheduling broadcast commercials to obtain maximum reach by simultaneously showing the identical advertisement on several different stations.
Romance Card: Written material that accompanies an advertising specialty, providing information about the product and its background.
Rotogravure: A magazine supplement that is printed by a gravure process, and run on a rotary press. This process is useful for large runs of pictorial effects.
Rotoscoping: The process of using live and animated characters within an advertisement.
Rough: An unfinished layout of an ad which shows only a general conception to be presented for analysis,
criticism, and approval.
Rough Cut: A preliminary arrangement of film or tape shots that are roughly edited together without voice–over or
music to serve purpose in the early stages of editing.
Run–of–press (ROP): A newspaper publisher’s option to place an ad anywhere in the publication that they choose, as opposed to Preferred position. Also referred to as Run–of paper.
Run–of–schedule (ROS): A station’s option to place a commercial in any time slot that they choose.
Rushes: Rough, unedited prints of a commercial to be used for editing purposes. Also referred to as dallies.
Sales Promotion: Marketing activities that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness through a
combination of personal selling, advertising, and all supplementary selling activities.
Sales-Response Function: Refers to the effect of advertising on sales.
Sans–serif Type: A typestyle of lettering with no serifs, or cross strokes at the end of main strokes.
Scanners: An optical character recognition machine which consists of a scan head, a computer processor, and an output device. Used for interpreting documents, invoices, bar–codes, and photos for use in Color separations.
Scene Setting: The process of using realistic sounds to stimulate noise in backgrounds during radio production such as car horns, sirens, recorded laughter, etc.
Screen: (1) A printing process in which a squeegee forces paint or ink through a screen which is decorated with
stenciled designs onto the paper. (2) The surface onto which an image of a slide or television picture is shown.
Seasonality: The variation in sales for goods and services throughout the year, depending on the season, e.g. hot
chocolate is advertised more in the winter, as opposed to summer months.
Seasonal: Rating adjustments In broadcast media, rating modifications that reflect changes in the season, e.g. weather and holidays.
Selective Demand Advertising: Advertising which promotes a particular manufacturer’s brand as opposed to a generic product. See Primary Demand.
Selective Distribution: Allows manufacturers to maintain more control over the way their products are sold and discourages price competition among sellers of the products by distributing their products only to those wholesalers and retailers who follow the manufacturer’s guidelines.
Self–liquidating Premium: A premium offer paid by the consumer whose total cost including handling fees are paid for in the basic sales transaction.
Self–mailer: A direct–mail piece in which no envelope or wrapper is required for mailing.
Semi–liquidator: A premium offer that is partially paid by the consumer as well as the manufacturer.
Semiotics: Refers to theories regarding symbolism and how people glean meaning from words, sounds, and
pictures. Sometimes used in researching names for various products and services.
Serif type: Short, decorative cross lines or tails at the ends of main strokes in some typefaces, such as Roman
Sets in use (SIU): The percent of television sets that are tuned into a particular broadcast during a specific amount of time.
Share–of-Audience: The percent of audiences that are tuned into a particular medium at a given time, e.g. the number of people watching television between the hours of 8:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.
Share–of–voice (SOV): A brand’s or group of brands’ advertising weight expressed as a percentage of a defined total market or market segment in a given time period
Shelf Screamers (shelf talkers): A printed advertising message which is hung over the edge of a retail store shelf, e.g. “On Special,” or “Sale item.”
Signature: (1) A musical theme associated with a television program, radio show, or a particular product or
service. Also referred to as a Theme song. (2) Single printing sheet which folds into 4, 8, 12,16, and so on pages to be gathered and bound to form a part of a book, or pamphlet.
Silk Screening: A color printing method in which ink is forced through a stencil placed over a screen that blocks out areas of an image, and onto the printing surface. Also referred to as Serigraphy. Simmons Market Research Bureau (SMRB). A syndicated service which provides audience exposure and product usage data for print and
Situation Analysis: The gathering and evaluation of information to identify the target group and strategic direction of an advertising campaign.
Slicks: A high–quality proof of an advertisement printed on glossy paper which is suited for reproduction.
Slotting Allowances: Fees paid by a manufacturer to a retailer for the retailer’s shelf space.
Soft Sell: The technique of using low pressure appeals in advertisements and commercials.
Solid: An arrangement of type lines set vertically as closely as possible. Also referred to as solid set.
Specialty Advertising: This is the older term used for Promotional products (see above). It remains a commonly used term by many companies.
Speculative (spec) Sample: A sample promotional product, with the prospective buyer’s imprint on it, produced with the hope that the customer will purchase it.
Split Run: Two or more different forms of an advertisement which are ran simultaneously in different copies of the
same publication, used to test the effectiveness of one advertisement over another to appeal to regional or other specific markets.
Spot Announcements: Commercial or public service announcements that are placed on television or radio programs.
Spot Color: The technique of coloring for emphasis some areas of basic black–and–white advertisements, usually
with a single color.
Spot Television (or radio): Time slots in geographic broadcast areas, purchased on a market–to–market basis rather than through a network.
Spread: Refers to a pair of facing pages in a periodical, or an advertisement which is printed across two such
Staggered Schedule: A schedule of advertisements in a number of periodicals which have different insertion dates.
Standard Advertising Unit System (SAUS): A set of uniform advertising procedures developed by the American Newspaper Publishers Association.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC): Defined by the U.S Department of Commerce to be a classification of businesses in a numeric hierarchy.
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS): A commercial firm that publishes reference volumes that include up–to–date information on rates, requirements, closing dates, and other information necessary for ad placement in the media.
Starch Scores: A result of a method used by Daniel Starch and staff in their studies of advertising readership which include noted, or the percent of readers who viewed the tested ad, associated, or the percent of readers who associated the ad with the advertiser, and read–most, or the percent of readers who read half or more of the copy.
Starch Readership Service: A research organization (Starch INRA Hooper) that provides an advertisement’s rank in issue and Starch scores.
Stet: A Latin term meaning “let it stand,” which instructs a printer or typesetter to ignore an alteration called for in a proof.
Stop Motion: A photographic technique in which inanimate objects appear to move.
Storyboard: A blueprint for a TV commercial which is drawn to portray copy, dialogue, and action, with caption
notes regarding filming, audio components, and script.
Stratified Selection: An equally measured statistical sample which represents all the categories into which the population has been divided.
Stripping: Positioning film negatives or positives of copy and illustrations for the purpose of creating a printing
plate for that ad or page. Also referred to as image assembly.
Subliminal Persuasion: An advertising message presented below the threshold of consciousness. A visual or auditory message that is allegedly perceived psychologically, but not consciously. Also called Subception.
Superimposition (super) A process in TV production where an image, words, or phrases are imposed over another image.
Supplementary Media: Non–mass media vehicles that are used to promote products, e.g., Point–of–purchase advertising.
Supplier: Companies that sell goods or services to an advertising agency for their use in constructing
advertisements, e.g., design studios, color houses, printers, and paper producers.
Swatch Proof: A sample of the material for a promotional product, with the customer’s artwork printed on it in the
Sweeps: Refers to a time during the months of November, March, and May, when both Nielson and Arbitron
survey all local market broadcast media for the purpose of rating the stations and their programming.
Syndicated Program: A television or radio program that is distributed in more than one market by an organization other than a network.