This section features key phrases and terms that will give the readER insight into marketing and advertising terms.
NAB: National Association of Broadcasters. An association whose membership is largely composed of radio
and television stations.
NAD: National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. This organization serves as a
major self–regulatory mechanism for advertising.
NARB: National Advertising Review Board of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. When an alleged
problem arises with an advertisement, and a satisfactory solution is not obtained via the NAD, above,
the NARB acts in the capacity of an appeals board. It reviews the decision of the NAD, and passes
judgment on it.
Narrowcasting: Using a broadcast medium to appeal to audiences with special interests. For example, the “All Knitting Station” would be a narrowcast, because it appeals to an audience with a specific interest.
National Advertising: Advertising which is aimed at a National Market, as opposed to Local Advertising.
National Brand: A nationally distributed product brand name. May also be distributed regionally or locally.
Near-Pack (Near Pack Premium): An item offered free or at a discount with the purchase of another product. The item can be positioned close to but may not touch the purchased product. A type of product promotion.
Negative: Developed film that contains an image that has reversed shadows and light areas.
Net Cost: The costs associated with services rendered by an advertising agency excluding the agency
Net Unduplicated Audience: The combined cumulative audience exposed to an advertisement.
Network: A national or regional group of affiliated broadcast stations contractually bound to distribute radio or
television programs for simultaneous transmission.
Network Option Time: Programming time the network controls on each of its affiliate stations. Also referred to as network time.
Newsprint: A soft, course wood pulp paper used in printing newspapers.
Nielsen Rating: A measurement of the percentage of U.S. television households tuned to a network program for a
minute of its telecast.
Noncommercial Advertising: Radio and television advertising that is designed to educate and promote ideas or institutions, e.g., public service announcements.
O & O Station: Radio and television stations owned and operated by a network.
Off Card: Refers to advertising time sold at a rate that does not appear on the rate card.
Offset Lithography: A planographic printing process. A photographic image from a printing plate is transferred to a rubber blanket, which, in turn, transfers or prints the image onto the paper.
On-Air Tests: Tests recall among viewers of a commercial or program during a real broadcast of the tested
On–pack (On–pack Premium): Used to promote sales of a product. Discount coupons or gifts that are attached to or accompany the product to be purchased.
Open End: (1) Time left at the end of a commercial or program which is provided for the use of local advertising or
station identification. (2) A radio or television program with no specific time to end.
Opticals: Visual effects used to instill interest as well as portray mood and continuity to a commercial. Dissolves,
Cross fades, and Montages are all opticals.
Out–of-Home Advertising: Exposure to advertising and mass media away from one’s home. Included are outdoor, point–of–purchase, and radio.
Outdoor Advertising: Any outdoor sign that publicly promotes a product or service, such as
billboards, movie kiosks, etc.
Overlay: A transparent or opaque covering used to protect designs or layouts in the form of separate
transparent prints that combine to form a finished design or graphic.
Overrun: Additional numbers of a print vehicle that are produced in excess of those needed for distribution.
Overruns may take place to meet unexpected needs or demands.
Package: (1) A combination of programs or commercials offered by a network that is available for purchase by
advertisers either singly or as a discounted package deal. (2) A merchandise enclosure or container. Package enclosure. Same as In–pack premium.
Package Insert: Separate advertising material included in merchandise packages that advertises goods or services; also referred to as Package Stuffer.
Painted Bulletin: A freestanding steel or wooden structure, approximately 50′ wide by 15′ high, with molding around the outer edges similar to a poster panel, and including a hand painted copy message. Bulletins are generally found near highways or roofs of buildings in high traffic areas.
Panels: This includes regular and illuminated types of outdoor advertising. A regular panel is only seen during
the daytime, while an illuminated panel is seen also from dusk until dawn.
Pantone Matching System (PMS): A system that precisely characterizes a color, so that a color can be matched, even by different printers. By knowing the Pantone color specifications, a printer does not even need to see a sample of the color in order to match it.
Parity Products: Product categories where the several brands within that category possess functionally equivalent
attributes, making one brand a satisfactory substitute for most other brands in that category.
Participation: (1) Announcements made inside the context of a program as opposed to those shown during station breaks. (2) An announcement or amount of broadcasting time which is shared by several advertisers.
Pass–along Readers: A reader which becomes familiar with a publication without the purchase o
f a publication. These readers are taken into account when calculating the total number of readers of a publication.
Paste–up: A camera–ready layout of illustrative and type material which is configured in the proper position on
paperboard and is used for reproductive purposes.
Payout Planning: Approach to advertising budgeting in which the dollars spent to advertise are represented as an
investment toward sales and profits.
Per Inquiry: An agreement between a media representative and an advertiser in which all advertising fees are paid
based on a percentage of all money received from an advertiser’s sales or inquires.
Percent–of–sales Method: Method of determining the advertising budget based on an analysis of past sales, as well as a forecast for future sales.
Perceived Risk: A functional or psychosocial risk a consumer feels he/she is taking when purchasing a product.
Personal Selling: Sales made through a medium of face–to–face communication, personal correspondence, or personal telephone conversation, etc.
Personalize: To add a name or other personal information about the recipient on direct mail advertising.
Persons Using Television (PUT): A percentage of all persons in a certain viewing area that are viewing television during a specific amount of time. Used by A.C. Nielson.
Persons Viewing Television (PVT): Same meaning as above, except this term is used by Arbitron.
Persuasion Process: The process used by advertising to influence audience or prospect attitudes, especially purchase intent and product perception by appealing to reason or emotion.
Phantom: An illustration showing the exterior of an object as if it were transparent, while revealing interior
Photoanimation: A process of creating animation through the use of still photographs.
Photoboards: A set of still photographs made from a television commercial, accompanied with a script, to be kept as records by an agency or client.
Photocomposition: A method of setting type by using negatives of the characters of film or photographic paper rather than metal type slugs, also referred to as Cold type.
Photoengraving: (1) The process of making letterpress printing plates by photochemical means. (2) A picture printed from a plate made by this process.
Photoplatemaking: A process which converts original art material into printing plates that are required to print ads.
Photostat: A type of high contrast photographic negative or positive in the form of paper. Also referred to as Stat.
Pica: (1) A unit of measurement for type specification and printing which measures width; 6 picas to one
inch. (2) A size of type, 12 points.
Picture Window: An ad layout in which the picture is placed at the top of the page, and the copy is placed below.
Piggyback: (1) A direct mail offer that is included free with another offer. (2) Two commercials which are shown back–to–back by the same sponsor.
Point: (1) A small unit of measurement for type, equal to 1/72 of an inch. (2) A small unit for measuring the thickness of paper, equaling 0.001 inch.
Point–of–Purchase (POP) Displays: Advertising display material located at the retail store, usually placed in an area where payment is made, such as a check–out counter.
Positive: A photographic image which appears as the original image, as opposed to a negative which reverses
the black and white.
Poster Panel: An outdoor billboard in which advertising is displayed on printed paper sheets rather than being
painted. The most widely used form of outdoor advertising; standard size approximately 25′ x 12′ with
the image printed on sections of 24 to 30 sheets.
Post Testing: Testing the effects of an ad after it has appeared in the media.
Preemptible Rate: A usually discounted rate for commercial time which is sold to an advertiser and is not guaranteed. Time may be sold to another advertiser who is willing to pay more; therefore, the advertiser buying this
rate gambles to save money on the spot.
Preferred Position: A position in a printed publication that is thought to attract most reader attention and is
sold at a higher rate; for example, the back cover of a magazine.
Premium: An item, other than the product itself, which is offered free or at a nominal price as an incentive to
purchase the advertised product or service.
Preprint: A reproduction of an advertisement which is viewed before actual publication and is created by an
advertiser for special purposes, e.g., to serve as retail displays or to gain support from retailers.
Pretesting: Testing an advertisement or an audience sample prior to placing the ad in the media.
Primary Demand Advertising: Advertising designed for the generic product category, as opposed to selective
Prime Time: The broadcast periods viewed or listened to by the greatest number of persons and for which a station charges the most for air time. In television, the hours are usually 8:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. E.S.T. (7:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. C.S.T.).
Private Brand: Product brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, dealer, or merchant, as opposed to a manufacturer or producer, and bearing it’s own company name or another name it owns exclusively. Also referred to as Private label.
Prize: Barters of merchandise given as prizes on television or radio shows in return for mentions of the brand
names of the merchandise donated.
Product Differentiation: Developing unique product differences with the intent to influence demand.
Product Life Cycle: A marketing theory in which products or brands follow a sequence of stages including : introduction, growth, maturity, and sales decline.
Product Management: Assigning specific products or brands to be managed by single managers within an advertising agency.
Product Positioning: The consumer perception of a product or service as compared to it’s competition.
Product-Related Segmentation: A method of identifying consumers by the amount of product usage, usually categorized demographically or psychographically.
Production: Process of physically preparing the advertising idea into a print or broadcast advertisement.
Professional Advertising: Advertising directed toward professionals such as doctors, dentists, and pharmacists, etc., who are in a position to promote products to their patients or customers.
Program Delivery (rate): Percentage of a sample group of people tuned in to a particular program at a particular time.
Progressive Proofs (Progs): Set of proofs made during the four–color printing process which shows each color plate separately and in combination. Also referred to as Color proofs.
Promotion: All forms of communication other than advertising that call attention to products and services by adding extra values toward the purchase. Includes temporary discounts, allowances, premium offers, coupons,
contests, sweepstakes, etc.
Promotional Mix: Using several different types of communication to support marketing goals which include Advertising, Personal selling (see above), Publicity (see above), and Sales promotions (see below).
Promotional Product: A product imprinted with, or otherwise carrying, a logo or promotional message. Also called an Advertising Specialty.
Proof: An impression on paper of type, an engraving or the like, for the purpose of checking the correctness
and quality of the material to be printed.
Psychographics: A term that describes consumers or audience members on the basis of psychological characteristics initially determined by standardized tests.
Public Relations (PR): Communication with various sectors of the public to influence their attitudes and opinions in the interest of promoting a person, product, or idea.
Public Relations Advertising: Advertising by a corporation that focuses on public interest but maintains a relationship to the corporation’s products or agencies.
Public Service Advertising (PSA): Advertising with a central focus on public welfare, and is generally sponsored by a non–profit institution, civic group, religious organization, trade association, or political group.
Publicity: A type of public relations in the form of a news item or story which conveys information about a
product, service, or idea in the media.
Puffery: A legal exaggeration of praise lavished on a product that stops just short of deception.
Pulsing: The use of advertising in regular intervals, as opposed to seasonal patterns.
Pupilometrics: A method of advertising research in which a study is conducted on the relationship between a viewer’s pupil dilation and the interest factor of visual stimuli.
Psychological Segmentation: The separation of consumers into psycho logical characteristic categories on the basis of standardized tests.